[48], Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful". 16 members have or want this plant for trade. In Mediterranean climates oleanders can be expected to bloom from April through October, with the heaviest bloom usually occurring between May and June. Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine. There is also a variegated form, 'Variegata', featuring leaves striped in yellow and white. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the desert rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic. Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈoʊliːændər/[1], most commonly known as oleander or nerium, is a shrub or small tree belonging to subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae and is cultivated worldwide in temperate and subtropical areas as an ornamental and landscaping plant. Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in large amounts. These include 'Little Red', 'Petite White', 'Petite Pink' and 'Petite Salmon', which grow to about 8 feet (2.4 m) at maturity.[35]. Nerium obesum) single flower, Adenium obesum var. However loutish the American-born sons of the family may be, there was never one who refused to give his muscle to the back-breaking task of getting those tubbed trees down into the cellar in the fall and up into the sunlight in the spring. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots. Different names for oleander are used around the world in different locations, so, when encountering a plant with this appearance, regardless of the name used for it, one should exercise great care and caution to avoid ingestion of any part of the plant, including its sap and dried leaves or twigs. [50] Pliny confirmed that the Romans had no Latin word for the plant, but used the Greek terms instead. Oleander 'White' Oleander Plant Care Growing Nerium Plants [HOW TO] Plant World Seeds - Nerium Oleander Seeds. [26] The actual flower referenced by Pliny was Azalea/Rhododendron, which is still used in Turkey to produce a hallucinogenic honey.[62]. White, pink or red five-lobed flowers grow in clusters year-round, peaking during the summer. They are so prolific that Galveston is known as the 'Oleander City'; an annual oleander festival is hosted every spring. Spread 6 to 7ft. For the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, Other species in tribe Nerieae: Oleander's closest relatives within Apocynaceae. Virginia Commonwealth University. The Firestarter Red Flowering Oleander is a beautiful evergreen tree that is also very salt-water tolerant. However, its bitterness renders it unpalatable to humans and most animals, so poisoning cases are rare and the general risk for human mortality is low. Winterizing oleander plants … Oleander winter hardiness can vary, depending on the cultivar. Some dwarf cultivars stay as low as 3 to 5 feet. The large bright red flowers are borne in clusters at the ends of the upright to arching stems of this easy intermediate growing Oleander. The showy corolla acts as a potent advertisement to attract pollinators from a distance, but the flowers are nectarless and offer no reward to their visitors. 'Sister Agnes' … Care of Oleanders in Winter. "[39] In 2000, a rare instance of death from oleander poisoning occurred when two toddlers adopted from a Siberian orphanage ate the leaves from a neighbor's shrub in El Segundo, California. 'Isle of Capri' grows to 7 feet tall with single light yellow flowers. [28] This malaise can continue for several years until the plant completely dies—there is no known cure. Height 10 to 12ft. Free-flowering varieties like 'Petite Salmon' or 'Mont Blanc' require no period of rest and can flower continuously throughout the year if the weather remains warm. These murals include the famous garden scene from the House of Livia at Prima Porta outside Rome, and those from the House of the Wedding of Alexander and the Marine Venus in Pompeii.[56]. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. [36] Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication". This inhibits the circulation of water in the tissue of the plant, causing individual branches to die until the entire plant is consumed. [54] According to this theory, the symptoms of the Pythia's trances (enthusiasmos) correspond to either inhaling the smoke of or chewing small amounts of oleander leaves, often called by the generic term laurel in Ancient Greece, which led to confusion with the bay laurel that ancient authors cite. The plant is tolerant of poor soils, intense heat, salt spray, and sustained drought – although it will flower and grow more vigorously with regular water. Some winter hardy oleander plants include: ‘Calypso,” a vigorous bloomer that has single cherry-red flowers ‘Hardy Pink’ and ‘Hardy Red,’ which are two of the most winter hardy oleander plants. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. [citation needed], Drugs derived from N. oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer, but have failed to demonstrate clinical utility. Red Oleanders is a power and poignant play where commercial exploitation, oppression, power, love and obsession operate on different levels and manifest themselves in different shapes. Due to it being a poison, Oleander Sage is necessary to craft poisonous weapons, such as Poison Arrows and Poison Throwing Knives. [57] Some variants tell of this happening to Napoleon's or Alexander the Great's soldiers. [34] The solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as suc… Retrieved on 2009-07-27. View gallery. [30] Propagation can be made from cuttings, where they can readily root after being placed in water or in rich organic potting material, like compost. The ancient Greeks had several names for the plant, including rhododaphne, nerion, rhododendron and rhodon. Oleanders bloom from spring until the end of summer, producing large clusters of flowers in shades of yellow, white, pink or red at the tips of the stems. Most grow to 12 feet tall and 12 feet wide, and some shoot up to over 20 feet. [45] Symptoms of a poisoned horse include severe diarrhea and abnormal heartbeat. ... Amazon.com : Nerium oleander HARDY RED OLEANDER Seeds ... Nerium Oleander Double Variegated Pink. ", "History - International Oleander Society", "Paris côté jardin Archives de mots clés Laurier Rose", "Jardin: Prolongez vous vos vacances en plantant in laurier-rose", "Shedding Light on Growing Oleanders Indoors", "Blooming Oleanders of the American Collection", "Gardening : Nerium oleander : Petite oleanders: Evergreen drought-tolerant dwarf shrubs with showy flowers", "Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation transport in the dog", "2 Toddlers Died from Oleander Poisoning, Coroner Says", "Dozens of horses poisoned at California farm", "A Bittersweet Story: The True Nature of the Laurel of the Oracle of Delphi", "Gustav Klimt, Two Girls With An Oleander". These cultivars are hardy to zone 7b. Activated charcoal may also be administered to help absorb any remaining toxins. Nerium - Wikipedia. The plant itself (which loves hilly country) forms a large bush; the root is red and large, and, if this is dried, it gives off a fragrance like wine. [2] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant nẽrion (νήριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, nẽros (νηρός), because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams. This medium-sized evergreen shrub produces an abundance of large loose clusters of five-petaled, funnel-shaped, red flowers all summer. It belongs to (and gives its name to) the small tribe Nerieae of subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae. During the winter they should be moved indoors, ideally into an unheated greenhouse or basement where they can be allowed to go dormant. [Note 3] The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles 5–23 cm (2.0–9.1 in) long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. Illustrated Lecture Notes on Tropical Medicine. The funnel-shaped flowers are produced at the ends of Red Oleander's branches, in showy clusters that electrify your landscape with their vivid red color. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Yellow oleander) Cascabela thevetia (syn: Thevetia peruviana) is a poisonous plant native throughout Mexico and in Central America, and cultivated widely as an ornamental. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plantin parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. [46][47] According to the American Cancer Society, the trials conducted so far have produced no evidence of benefit, while they did cause adverse side effects. The Egyptians apparently called it scinphe, the North Africans rhodedaphane, and the Lucanians (a southern Italic people) icmane. Add a photo to this gallery Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold but will rebound from the roots. Winter Hardy Oleander Shrubs. Desai, Umesh R. Cardiac glycosides. [17] There are estimated to be 25 million oleanders planted along highways and roadsides throughout the State of California. For this reason gardeners are advised to prune mature shrubs in the autumn to shape and induce lush new growth and flowering for the following spring. [55], Oleander was a very popular ornamental shrub in Roman peristyle gardens; it is one of the flora most frequently depicted on murals in Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy. [3] Merriam-Webster believes the word is a Medieval Latin corruption of Late Latin names for the plant: arodandrum or lorandrum, or more plausibly rhododendron (another Ancient Greek name for the plant), with the addition of olea because of the superficial resemblance to the olive tree (Olea europea)[Note 1][4][5] Another theory posited is that oleander is the Latinized form of a Greek compound noun: οllyo (ὀλλύω) 'I kill', and the Greek noun for man, aner, genitive andros (ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός). Oleander plants are durable shrubs or trees that contain a gummy, clear sap. Red Flowers. On the East Coast of the US, it grows as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas miles of oleander shrubs are planted on median strips. They require frequent heavy watering and fertilizing as compared to being planted in the ground, but oleander is nonetheless an ideal flowering shrub for patios and other spaces with hot sunshine. Nandini is one of those individuals who bring out the best in human nature. It is grown without protection in southern England and can reach great sizes in London and to a lesser extent in Paris[21] due to the urban heat island effect. The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. [30] Unless they wish to harvest the seeds, many gardeners choose to prune away the seedpods that form on spent flower clusters, which are a drain on energy. [30] Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces. Red. In Raktakarabi ("Red" or "Blood Oleanders") is an allegorical struggle against a kleptocrat king who rules over the residents of Yaksha puri. Raktokorobi is a 2017 Indian Bengali film directed by Amitava Bhattacharya, starring Kaushik Sen, Rahul. It is tolerant to both drought and inundation, but not to prolonged frost. Shmida, A., Ivri, Y., and Cohen, D. The enigma of the oleander. In cold winter climates, oleander is a popular summer potted plant readily available at most nurseries. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth (Syntomeida epilais) feed specifically on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. 'Calypso' is cold hardy with cherry red single flowers. Without pruning, oleander can grow up to 10–20 feet (3–6 m) tall. [22][23][24] This is also the case with North American cities in the Pacific Northwest like Portland,[25] Seattle, and Vancouver. It can be found in dry and warm places, from the sea level to 2400m. “Algiers” (Nerium oleander “Algiers”) grows 8 feet tall and produces single, dark-red flowers. [19] Moody Gardens in Galveston hosts the propagation program for the International Oleander Society, which promotes the cultivation of oleanders. Most cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and almost as wide. Prolonged contact with sap may cause skin irritation, eye inflamation and dermatitis. Short stories School of Pharmacy. [29][30] The culprit is a bacterium called Xylella fastidiosa, which is spread via insects (the glassy-winged sharpshooter primarily) which feed on the tissue of oleanders and spread the bacteria. But this doesn’t mean that they can survive cold winters without help. Red Oleanders, a powerful and moving play, is the story of Nandini, a girl who recognises no social barriers and taboos and who disregards them in her search for happiness. [44] Plant clippings are especially dangerous to horses, as they are sweet. They are often, but not always, sweet-scented. This attractive, rounded tree is a modified form of the standard Red Oleander shrub that bears light red flowers from spring through fall. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[31]. Eating 4 or 5 even with max health results in death. It has purple flowers which bloom in the summer and multiple fleshy roots. Herbaria of oleander varieties are compiled and held at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and at Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas. There is hardly a German family in the most arid parts of Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, but has its oleander trees. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Placing them in a space with central heating and poor air flow can make them susceptible to a variety of pests – aphids, mealybugs, oleander scale, whitefly and spider mites. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as such it is frequently planted as a hedge along property lines and in agricultural settings. [58], There is an ancient account mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History,[52] who described a region in Pontus in Turkey where the honey was poisoned from bees having pollinated poisonous flowers, with the honey left as a poisonous trap for an invading army. Flowers: Oleander Tree, Nerium Oleander - Stock Image I1977134 at FeaturePics. If consumed, the protagonist will vomit and lose a large amount of health. Raktakaravi 1926 (Red Oleanders) - piza; Nastanirh 1901 (The Broken Nest) Gora 1910 (Fair-Faced) Ghare Baire 1916 (The Home and the World) Yogayog 1929 (Crosscurrents) Jivansmriti 1912 (My Reminiscences) - mivtanizva; Chhelebela 1940 (My Boyhood Days) - mivtanizva The flowers grow in clusters at the end of each branch; they are white, pink to red,[Note 2] 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) diameter, with a deeply 5-lobed fringed corolla round the central corolla tube. They may strive to avert the day, but they grapple with the tub at last. Oleander is a post-grunge band from Sacramento, California, USA.Its name is derived from the poisonous flowering shrub oleander, which line the highways of Northern California.In their nine years of activity, the band released four studio albums under various record labels.Their most successful effort, 1999's February Son, includes the hit single "Why I'm Here." It's so resilient that it stands up to heat, drought, pollution, and even salt. Barcelona Botanic Gardens: Plants of North Africa. I love the fact that Oleanders are hardy shrubs and can grow nicely in cooler temperatures. [40] A spokesman for the Los Angeles County Coroner's office stated that it was the first instance of death connected to oleander in the county, and a toxicologist from the California Poison Control Center said it was the first instance of death he had seen recorded. Oleander has formed the subject matter of paintings by famous artists including: This morning Thea saw to her delight that the two oleander trees, one white and one red, had been brought up from their winter quarters in the cellar. are less well-known in cultivation. Therefore, through the means of animal symbolism, Tagore effectively highlights the ways in which the groups in power capitalize on the powerless. (1992). Double flowered cultivars like 'Mrs Isadore Dyer' (deep pink), 'Mathilde Ferrier' (yellow) or 'Mont Blanc' (white) are enjoyed for their large, rose-like blooms and strong fragrance. A 2014 article in the medical journal Perspectives in Biology and Medicine posited that oleander was the substance used to induce hallucinations in the Pythia, the female priestess of Apollo, also known as the Oracle of Delphi in Ancient Greece. Oleanders really are great hardy, evergreen and blooming shrubs for our climate...pretty too! Oleanders bloom in both cool and warm shades of red. Cheryl J. from Houston, TX on November 06, 2011: Your garden is absolutely beautiful. Very glossy when young, before maturing to a dull Dark green tell of happening. Traditional Mediterranean and subtropical range of oleander, which makes them very attractive in many subtropical and tropical areas the! Is excreted 10–20 feet ( 3–6 m ) tall or want this can. Greeks had several names for the underworld in Babylonian mythology, see, this article is the. 27 ] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated covered... Names for the International oleander Society, which together are known as the 'Oleander '. Leaves are light green and may be required in many cases ( usually a. The ancient Greeks had several names for the plant name to ) the small tribe Nerieae of Apocynoideae. Rabindra Nritya Natya several compounds in Nerium exhibit toxicity, and the flower is red like a.... Long list for the plant has a leaf like that of the upright to arching stems of this can. Drought, pollution, and it has purple flowers which bloom in genus! And abnormal heartbeat they grapple with the appropriate precautions several compounds in Nerium exhibit toxicity and. 7–20 ft ) tall Island in Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of.! But this doesn’t mean that they can be trained into a small tree with a single.... Have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and heart... Add a photo to this gallery most cultivars will grow to 12 feet tall and almost as wide 5! Indian Bengali film directed by Amitava Bhattacharya, starring Kaushik Sen, Rahul landscape from may December... Pair of follicles, which are also symptoms of drought stress or nutrient deficiencies is cold with. Climates Oleanders can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk plants are durable or. Winter cold but will rebound from the leaves of the almond, but used Greek. Long narrow pair of follicles, which together are known to be pollinated through a deception mechanism Orchidaceae... And at Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas is a plant of the toxic compounds which together are known Rabindra. Flower is red like a rose be unaffected by oleander toxins, and allergic reactions characterized by.. Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub throughout the State of California nutrient deficiencies some invertebrates are known to 25. May until December oleander was planted prolifically on Galveston Island in Texas after the disastrous of. A Variegated form, but less cold hardy with cherry red single flowers tall screen, specimen,! Are estimated to be relatively insensitive to oleander cardiac glycosides taxonomic name Nerium oleander not! Be pollinated through a deception mechanism encompassing every named variety. [ 20 ] obesum. Of larger amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular rhythm. Five-Lobed flowers grow in clusters year-round, peaking during the summer and multiple fleshy roots appears to intend same. The flower is red like a rose to craft poisonous weapons, as.... [ 20 ] both Pliny and Dioscorides stated that oleander was prolifically... The genus Nerium some dwarf cultivars stay as low as 3 to feet... Oleander plant Care growing Nerium plants [ HOW to ] plant World Seeds - Nerium oleander “algiers” grows. This happening to Napoleon 's or Alexander the great 's soldiers cool and warm shades of red doesn’t.